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  • 전라남도출장안마⇞출장부르는법↔전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도공항신도시 마사지》◦〖전라남도동남아 안마방〗↿전라남도파타야 마사지→전라남도남부터미널 안마방✌전라남도고현 안마방↔전라남도마사지 할인╁전라남도가오슝 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    온라인카지노
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    전라남도출장안마ヨ예약┒전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도생리통 마사지》⇚〖전라남도응암동 마사지〗┤전라남도출장가격♣전라남도구미 봉곡동 마사지▣전라남도마사지 gif✒전라남도중국식 마사지♝전라남도덕계 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 해남싱가포르 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    전라남도출장안마▄24시출장샵╁전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도정준하 마사지》┡〖전라남도익산 모텔 추천〗♝전라남도마사지 대딸ワ전라남도마사지 침대☀전라남도안마방 몰래▥전라남도목 마사지ⓥ전라남도강서구 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    전라남도출장안마☪24시출장샵♪ 전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도스포츠 마사지 자격증》☵〖전라남도상록수 안마방〗☞전라남도수유역 마사지♥전라남도강서 안마방☍전라남도두정동 안마방▷전라남도여인숙 가격↝전라남도남양주 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 평택출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    전라남도출장안마☞24시출장샵◦전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도신촌 안마방》♩〖전라남도성수역 마사지〗╦전라남도용암동 모텔☚ 전라남도두통 마사지λ전라남도호텔식 마사지╬전라남도신중동 마사지◄전라남도안마방 빡촌

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 홍천안마방 구분 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    전라남도출장안마┲24시출장샵┖전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도김천 마사지》⇤〖전라남도안마방 감염〗↸전라남도부천 마사지☀전라남도검단 안마방↴전라남도안마방 체크카드▦전라남도서울 출장 후기⇦전라남도마사지 구분

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 온라인카지노 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    전라남도출장안마전라남도안마방 구분

  • 영암강서구 마사지
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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    전라남도출장안마☟예약✣전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도부산역 안마방》↮〖전라남도무거동 출장〗☃전라남도운서동 안마방┓전라남도연예인 안마방╎전라남도안마방 분수➥전라남도로드샵 단속☐전라남도대전 커플 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 함평마사지 영어 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    진주출장샵
    청양얼굴 마사지 기계 창원출장안마 울진포승 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 목포출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    전라남도출장안마❤예약♮전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도모텔 젤》ⓞ〖전라남도타이마사지 팁〗♣전라남도타이 마사지 가격▌전라남도아로마 마사지 효능➵전라남도하단 안마방♥전라남도오일 마사지 야동➽전라남도club 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 무안정준호 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    전라남도출장안마┆24시출장샵ο전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도상암동 안마방》➳〖전라남도은평구 안마방〗⇘전라남도비엔티엔 마사지⇩전라남도러시아 오피 후기╩전라남도천안 출장♂전라남도마사지 분수⇣전라남도석계 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장샵 .

    함안av 마사지 추천
    통영세종시 안마방 온라인카지노 성남음경 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    전라남도출장안마↔출장부르는법☻전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도통영 안마방》┨〖전라남도부산 타이 마사지〗♨전라남도베트남 하노이 마사지✿전라남도어스파↛전라남도서혜부 마사지 란➛전라남도트랜스젠더 안마방☴전라남도치앙마이 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    전라남도출장안마⇣24시출장샵┠전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도냥이 마사지》◎〖전라남도여성전용 마사지 후기〗└전라남도안마방 cctv◘전라남도출장 만남 카톡░전라남도황제 마사지│전라남도광명 안마방的전라남도오창 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 경주안마방 정보 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    전라남도출장안마∴24시출장샵◎전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도대만 안마방》ヌ〖전라남도잇몸 마사지〗⇣전라남도강동 마사지“전라남도창원 안마방╬전라남도일반인 마사지 torrent◊전라남도후두 마사지✓전라남도강서구청 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    전라남도출장안마キ24시출장샵⇪전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도천안 안마방》⇀〖전라남도출장 후기〗♪전라남도안마방 아다╣전라남도정왕 안마방╝전라남도포항 타이 마사지✁전라남도마사지 사진┫전라남도마사지 강간

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 광주소라넷 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 원주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 서울출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 금산신림동 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    전라남도출장안마◐예약금없는출장샵╈전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도낙성대 마사지》⇤〖전라남도동남아 마사지〗▷전라남도마사지 유출↾전라남도구디 안마방➹전라남도포항 북구 안마방╤전라남도건대 안마방υ전라남도고잔동 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, loveganghwa.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and carpanda.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    전라남도출장안마◄24시출장샵♧전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도코코넛오일 마사지》╘〖전라남도영등포 안마방〗☈전라남도50대 안마방⇆전라남도온천장 안마방◊전라남도부산마사지♮전라남도텔레그램 야동♥전라남도안마방 잠

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부평모텔 다방
    광주출장안마 영주서해부 마사지 대구출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    전라남도출장안마☝예약▨전라남도원룸 출장《전라남도대천 안마방》↟〖전라남도안마방 영업시간〗ψ전라남도일산 모텔 추천♀ 전라남도콧대 마사지 효과▄전라남도안마방 터치ヨ전라남도베이징 안마방➠전라남도호텔 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.전라남도출장안마전라남도서울 여인숙 가격╩전라남도울산 삼산동 안마방☣〖전라남도출장오쓰피걸〗전라남도대전 마사지 후기▣전라남도대전 출장안마↺전라남도동작구 안마방♭전라남도모텔 다방 가격♐천안출장샵출장부르는법전라남도안양 안마방 후기✒전라남도경산 사우나 마사지☠〈전라남도광주 대딸방〉전라남도출장샵예약포항☐전라남도서귀포 마사지●전라남도안마사κ전라남도출장서비스♦전라남도출장안마무주스즈하라 에미리 마사지전라남도유성 안마방↸전라남도러브젤 마사지┵{전라남도당동 안마방}전라남도체코 마사지 fc2コ전라남도경마 시간☒전라남도상봉동 안마방ο전라남도아비게일 마사지 토렌트↯전라남도타이마사지 종류↛전라남도안마방 ㅇㄷ⇜《전라남도역출장안마》전라남도천안 유흥♦전라남도검단 마사지❀전라남도전주 모텔 가격ρ전라남도목포 모텔 추천➚전라남도역삼 안마방♟전라남도안마방 오전α〔전라남도구의 안마방〕전라남도사가정 마사지ア전라남도거제 안마방♮전라남도게이 안마방✿전라남도익산 마사지☼전라남도안마방 입문┧전라남도김무열 마사지❄(전라남도출장 사기)전라남도제주 연동 마사지⇪전라남도안마방 몰카 토렌트☢전라남도안마방 위키▫전라남도안마방 신고φ예약금없는출장샵정읍안마방 팁예약금없는출장샵전라남도애인대행►전라남도신도림 안마방⇩〖전라남도방콕 마사지 비용〗전라남도울산 삼산 안마방╧전라남도출장서비스보장♡전라남도소라넷 마사지╜전라남도순천 마사지╁전라남도출장안마전라남도출장안마진주출장안마전라남도안마방 섹스전라남도평택역 안마방전라남도동탄 마사지전라남도서울출장안마전라남도출장안마전라남도천안 오피스ホ전라남도가락시장 마사지0(전라남도대구 아로마 마사지)전라남도가평 안마방▨전라남도마곡 마사지☄전라남도aktkwl❤전라남도경주 동천동 마사지┽동해철구 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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